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Effective Presentation(in English): Structure & Content

Presenter: Professor Yun-Hua Yang


  1. Think of a great presentation you’ve observed. What made it so?

  2. What do you need to do more to present effectively?

  3. Are you giving a report or telling a story?


- Structuring and framing your presentation

  • Narrative: a story or a report

- Conceptualizing your ideas

  • From being “vague” to being “clear”

  • From being “ambiguous” to being “distinct”

- Visualizing & illustrating your explanation


Structuring and Framing

- Where to start and where to end?

  • What the audience already knows and how much they care…

  • To introduce the topic soon, right from the beginning

To give an effective presentation, don’t linger too long, especially in the beginning, and need to get to the topic soon.
  • To explain why they should care

In order to appeal to the audience, we should keep our topic relevant to them.

- Every important point of an idea needs key details

  • To provide examples and illustrations

  • To make sense; to avoid abstract language

  • Not to over-explain; to allow the audience to draw their conclusion



- A careful analysis of general(or somehow abstract) ideas known as concepts

If the concept is simply too abstract or general, it will be difficult to convert an untenable notion into tenable. Furthermore, remember an effective presentation is for a certain action to be taken, so, in order for action to be taken, the idea should be extremely solid and concrete.

- To convert “concept” into a concrete “construct”

  • By meaning

  • By example

- To explain within the contextual scope

  • “Human” trafficking in…” 💡 ex. Human trafficking in China. Human trafficking in South Africa.

  • “Social equity in…” 💡 ex. Social equity in public administration. Social equity in the business.

- To include known events and definition/ reframe personal perceptions(if needed)

💡 A way of looking at things differently and choosing to put a positive spin on an experience is reframing. Committing to viewing problems as opportunities is a great way to warm up to reframing. When you can spin a problem into an opportunity, it transforms the energy from being negative to positive, allowing you to hold onto the possibility of unfolding potential.

- To avoid vagueness and ambiguity

A hierarchical structure

💡 Presentation Hierarchy is about treating elements of your presentation according to their importance.

- A mind map ( Source: HBR Guide to Persuasive Presentations)

  • To select relevant sub-concepts and explanations



  • To enhance the effectiveness of presentation by visual images

    • To design by diagrams, tables, charts

1. Pie chart The pie chart shows the parts-to-whole relationship. It helps you understand the parts-to-a-whole relationship, and they are used for nominal or categorical data.

2. Column chart While column charts show information vertically, and bar graphs show data horizontally. While you can use both to display changes in data, column charts are best for negative data.

3. Line Graph Line graphs help users track changes over short and long periods. Because of this, these types of graphs are good for seeing small changes.

To capture the relationship between data and notions/ ideas/ persuasions

You suppose to know what kind of graph can help you to explain different concepts, and different data is suitable for the different graphs.


Pie Chart

14 Best Types of Charts and Graphs for Data Visualization

Hierarchical Structure: Definition and Examples

Hierarchical Structure: Definition and Examples

Hierarchy presentation outline

Presentation Hierarchy

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